I'd be more inclined to fix the problem on the pi itself because of different architectures. You just need to be able to ssh onto it then the world is your oyster.
depmod and initram will be your friends in fixing the kernel module loading, I think; and you'd want to run those on the machine itself rather than in a chrooted environment from another.
It's been a while since I've had to fix stuff (usually grub) this way, so I'm running on shaky memory here, but I think you
sudo chroot /path/to/mounted/sd /bin/bash
then enable sshd on startup by
sudo systemctl enable ssh
Then type 'exit' to leave the chroot, unmount and put the sd into the pi, boot it up and ssh onto it. Assuming it still has a working network interface.